The shoulder joint is formed by three bones, your collarbone (clavicle), your shoulder blade (scapula), and your upper arm bone (humerus) all held together by muscles, ligaments and tendons. Muscles involved in the shoulder include the supraspinatus, deltoid, trapezius and serratus.
The shoulder joint is fairly delicate and unstable and prone to injury. To prevent injury and strengthen the joint, follow the following shoulder exercises starting with bodyweight exercises and progressing to those involving resistance:
Increases mobility of the shoulder joint. Sit on the floor with your back against the wall. Extend your arms out to your sides with the backs of your hands against the wall and your thumbs pointed up. As you press your back and arms into the wall, raise your arms overhead until your thumbs touch and then lower them and repeat x 12.
2. Snow Angels
Similar to those made as a child, but this time, face down on the floor. Also a shoulder mobility exercise, lie down on the floor with your arms outstretched and palms down. While holding your arms off the floor, sweep them from your legs until they reach in the middle above your head and then back to beside your thighs. Repeat x 12.
While you are face down on the floor, stretch you arms forward and tighten your core and raise and HOLD your upper body and legs off the floor. Look forward and not up to keep your spine neutral.
4. Decline Pushups
By elevating your feet, you shift the focus of pushups from chest to shoulders, the higher your feet, the more shoulder involvement. Simply elevate your feet on a sturdy bench, chair, desk and start pushing.
5. Pull Ups Chin Ups
Work the entire shoulder girdle (joint and surrounding muscles). Before you start spend time hanging from the bar to help strengthen and stabilize the shoulder. Pull ups use an overhand grip and involve more back muscles, chin ups use an underhand grip with palms facing you and involve more arm/bicep muscle. How To Do The Perfect Pullup.
6. Seated Presses
Best performed with dumbbells and seated on a sturdy bench which prevents arching your back and avoids back strains. Grab a pair of dumbbells and with palms facing away, press the dumbbells upward and stop just before your elbows lock out.
7. Front & Side Lateral Raises
Primarily deltoid exercises, but excellent for maintaining muscle support of the joint from the front and sides. Hold a pair of dumbbells (overhand grip) on your thighs and raise one or both to a level just above your shoulders. Don’t swing the weights or use momentum. Once completed, shift the dumbbells to the sides of your thighs and lift one or both upward until your hands (and dumbbells) are just above shoulder height.